Organization the Human body

Tuesday, May 09, 2006


The trigeminal nerves are the general sensory nerves of the face and motor nerves. Sensing facial touch, pain and temperature controlling muscles used fro chewing. These nerves are grouped into the three divisions.

1). Ophthalmic division (v1)
Leaves the neurocranium through the superior orbital fissure of the sphenoid bone from the forehead and eye sensory neurons send sensory from the targets.

2). Maxillary (v2)
Face foramen nasal cavity, palate, upper teeth, skin of the cheek; upper and lower eye lid

3). Mandibular (v3)
Anterior tongue, lower teeth, skin of chin, temporal region, chewing muscle motor neurons send information to the following targets: muscles of mastication which are muscles involved in chewing

Bones of the upper limb

The single bone of the upper arm is called the humerus, located between the elbow and the shoulder. The humerus articulated (moves) with the scapula (the bone that contains the shoulder blade) to form the shoulder joint, a shallow ball and socket joint that is inherently unstable but allows tremendous freedom of motion. Shoulder surgeons affectionately and accurately called the shoulder joint a “ball in a wall.” The joint is supported by a ring of muscles called the rotator cuff that provides stability to the shoulder joint and helps it move. These muscles are prone to injury in the middle years of life and to atrophy (muscle wasting) in later years.

The Lower Limb
The ankle is a hinge joint between the lower tibia and fibula and the talus (ankle) it also has strong ligaments on each side. The bones and joints of the tarsus, metatarsus and toes are locomotion. Like shocks they provide us with shock absorbing and mobility. Bone tissue cartilage and fibrous connective tissue from the ligaments that connect bone to bone. A normal blood calcium level is needed for block each bone is surrounded by periosteum, and fibrous connective tissue membrane.

Saturday, March 25, 2006

Vertebral Column and Peripheral Nerves

Vertebral Column and Peripheral Nerves


Vertebral column also have the spine, the vertebral column is formed from the irregular bones.

Vertebral column serve as the axial support the spine extended for the skull to the pelvis, where it transmits.

In the fetus and infant the vertebral column consist of 33 separate bones, or vertebral.


A. The vertebral column has five major groups, the necks are the cervical vertebrae, and the other 12 are the thoracic vertebrae and supporting the five lower back are the lumbar vertebrae.

B. The lumbar vertebral is the sacrum, which joins the t the hip bone.

C. The cervical and lumbar curvatures are concave posterity, the thoracic and sacral.

Structure of Vertebrae:

Vertebrae have common structural pattern the disc-shaped body is the weight of the region, it foramina of the articulated.

The pedicles, short body pillars projecting posterity from the vertebral body. The spinous process I is a median posterior the paired superior and inferior articular processes protrude superior and inferiorly.


1. Sensory receptors are specialized to respond to environmental.

2. Include the simple receptors for pain, touch, pressure and temperature in the skin in the visceral organs complex receptors.

3. According to the stimulus detected the mechanoreceptors and photoreceptors.

The sensory are classified as free or encapsulated ending of mechanoreceptors included Meissen’s muscle.

A nerve is a bundle of neuron fiber in fiber is enclosed by perineurium, and whole nerve.

Nerves are classified to the direction impulse conduction as sensory, motor, mixed.

Spinal Nerves:

Pair of 31 spinal nerves is numbered according to the region of the spinal cord.

2. Branches of each spinal nerve include dorsal and ventral, meningeal branch and in the thoracic, region.

axon - the long extension of a neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the body of the cell.
axon terminals - the hair-like ends of the axon
cell body - the cell body of the neuron; it contains the nucleus (also called the soma)
dendrites - the branching structure of a neuron that receives messages (attached to the cell body)
myelin sheath - the fatty substance that surrounds and protects some nerve fibers
node of Ranvier - one of the many gaps in the myelin sheath - this is where the action potential occurs during saltatory conduction along the axon
nucleus - the organelle in the cell body of the neuron that contains the genetic material of the cell
Schwann's cells - cells that produce myelin - they are located within the myelin sheath.

7 cervical vertebrae - 7 vertebrae located in the neck, below the skull. coccyx - 4 fused vertebrae located below the sacrum. 5 lumbar vertebrae - 5 vertebrae located below the thoracic vertebra and above the sacrum. sacrum - 5 fused vertebrae located below the lumbar region and above the coccyx. skull - the bones in the head that protect the brain. 12 thoracic vertebrae - 12 vertebrae in the mid-back, below the cervical vertebra and above the lumbar vertebrae.

Wednesday, February 22, 2006



1 What is tissue? Groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function are called tissues.

Epithelial Tissues
Cover the whole surface of the body
Form the lining of cavities in the body
Body must pass through an epithelium

2 classification of epithelial
A classification on the basis of number of layers
B classification on the basis of cell shape for each category, a whole cell is shown on the left and a longitudinal section is shown on the right

3 classification of epithelia
A each epithelium is given two names. The first name indicates the number of cell layer
B simple epithelia are composed of a single cell layer
C stratified epithelia consisting of two of more cell layers stacked one on top of the other, are common in high abrasion areas where protection is important, such as the skin surface

4 simple epithelia are easy to classify by cell shape because cells in the layer usually have the same shape.
A simple epithelia are most concerned with absorption secretion, and filtration
B simple squamous epithelium the cell of a simple squamous, epithelium are flattened laterally and their cytoplams
C simple cuboidal epithelium simple cuboidal epithelium consists of single layer of cell as tall as they are wide

5 the shape of the cell
A squamous thin, flat, nucleus is an flattened
B cuboidal roughly square shape, box like cells
C columnar – elongated column shape cell

6 connective tissue
A. what does it do – hold together, support, protect, serve as frame work, fill spaces store fat.
B. connect all the parts of your body
C. found everything in the body
D. develops from the mesenchyme
E. provides support for your body

7. How does it function?
A. connective tissues have some common property
B. Insulation
C. Binding and Support

8. How is it structural?
A. ground substance fills the space between the cells contains the fiber
B. fiber collagen are constructed primarily of the fibrous protein collagen
C. reticular fibers are: fine collagenous fibers with a slightly different chemistry and form
D. elastic fibers: long thin fibers that form branching

9. Dense connective tissue
A. tissues consists of loosely packed collagenous fiber
B. found as part of tendons and ligaments

10. Muscle tissue
Highly cellular, well vascularized tissue that is responsible for most types of body movement

11. Nervous Tissue
Nervous tissue are found in nervous system the brain spinal cord, and nerves which regulates and controls body functions.

12. Skeletal muscle tissue
A. organs called skeleton muscle that attached to the bones of the skeleton
B. muscles fibers are long cylindrical cells that contain many nuclei

13. Cardiac Muscle
A. Found only in the wall of the heart
B. help propped blood through the blood vessel to all parts of the body

14. Smooth muscle tissue
A. individual smooth muscle have no spindle shaped and contain one centrally located nucleus
B. Smooth muscle is found mainly in the wall of hollow organs other than the heart digestive and urinary tract organs, uterus, and blood vessels.

Thursday, February 09, 2006

Organization the Human body

Organization the Human body

The Level

the human body has many levels of structural organization The simplest level of the structural hierarchy is the

(A) Chemical level atoms tiny building blocks of matter combine to form molecules such as water and proteins.

(B) The cellular level is examined in all cell have some common functions, but individual cell have vary widely in size and shape.

(C) Tissue level: Tissue are groups of similar cells that have a common function the four basic tissue type are epithelium, muscle, connective, and nervous tissue.

(D) Organ level: Each organ of body if the body as a specialized functional center responsible for a necessary activity that no other organ can perform.

(E) Organ system: Organ that work together to accomplish a common purpose make up an organ system

(F) Oranisimal level: Represents the sum total of all structural level working together to promote life


(A) Before fertilization can occur, sperm must reach the ovulated secondary oocyte. The oocyte is viable for 12 to 24 hours after it is cast out of the ovary the chance of pregnancy drops to almost zero the next day.

(B) Completion of meiosis 11 and fertilization

After a sperm enters the oocyte it loses its tail and midpiece and then migrates to the center of the oocyle while the secondary oocyle completes meiosis.

(C) Sperm transport and capacitation

During copulations, a man expels millions of sperm with considerable force into his partner’s vaginal canal.

(D) During weeks 3, the two layered embryonic disctransform into a three layered embryo in which the primary germ layers ectoderm, mesoderm, and ended are present this process, called gasturlation.


3, structurally the epidermis is a keratinized stratified squamous epidermis consisting of.

(A) Four distinct cell type and four or fine distinct layers

(B) Dermis the second major skin region is strong, flexible connective tissue.

(C) Sweat glands also called sudoriferou glands are distributed over the entire skin surface except the nipples and parts of the external genitalia

(D) Nails are a scale like modification of the epidermis that forms a clear protective covering on the dorsal.